Reform and foreign policy:

In this chapter, author discusses about the appointment of Khatami in 1997 and the change in domestic politics that directly changed foreign policy. Khatami was liberal as compared to the conventional politicians of Iran that led him to make some major decisions that helped Iran a lot. He talked about the corruption of Iran political elite and the propaganda in the name of nationalism.

Iran was a rich country but the nation of Iran was getting poor because of political elite corruption and miss management. Khatami highlighted these points. Khamenei was the supreme leader at that time and his interests were not similar of Khatami. Khamenei was more nationalist as compared to Khatami counterfeit id. The people of Iran wanted to change as the inflation was increasing and Khatami was a good option but the national security and foreign policy were the department of Khamenei that caused major problems for Khatami because of nationalism approach of Khamenei

Defense and national security

In this chapter writer talked about the national security and defense situation of Iran. The national security and foreign policy was under Khamenei while Khatami the president did not have authority of these departments fake id idtop.  There were two groups in Iran conservatives and reformists. Iranians are extremely nationalists as they held one of the biggest empire in world known as Persian Empire. Nationalist considered the US and EU as a major threat for their sovereignty including Israel but reformists were easy on EU and USA. There political approach was the better relation of Iran with EU and USA but the reformists were are also against the Israel.  Khatami declared Israel as the greatest regional threat.

Iran’s missile program:

In this chapter writer wrote that Iran Missile program was very controversial as claimed by Iran for their deterrence, but the USA, EU, and Israel declared it dangerous for the world. According to USA, the missile program of Iran was illegal and security concern for this region. Missile program can play its vital role in the national security. As in past, Iran was targeted with missiles by Iraq and Iran was not the first country in missile race. Iraq and KSA were involved already. The improvement of missile technology and using them as the primary source of the attack. As compared to the Air force was compulsory for Iran because of past attacks on Iran. Missiles will improve the deterrence of Iran and perfect reply to Israel for its missiles. For this purpose, Iran collaborated with China and North Korea.

Nuclear weapons:

Rafsanjani stated that Iran has threatened and in past, Iran was targeted with chemical weapons, and Israel is also doing its nuclear weapon program. But our program will be peaceful and for scientific research purposes. He stated that India and Pakistan formed nuclear weapons because of the rivalry and regional threat. While Iran doesn’t have nuclear weapons despite facing regional threat because of Israel. Iran wanted to exit NPT according to article X which gives states the right to exit from NPT in an existential threat to state, but it will blur the situations for countries like North Korea, KSA, and Turkey. Iran’s nuclear program is not for Iraq as per the teachings of Islam. And Rafshjani also claimed that the USA sees the extremism in Iran but never responded to Israel’s Zionism

Terrorism and the Middle East question:

According to the author, Iran is associated most with terrorism and its spread in the region. Palestinians and Jordan officials like helping and facilitating Hezbollah and Hammas in the Middle East. And the USA also show their concerns over the increasing influence of Iran in the Middle East. The revolution in Iran is also linked with terrorism by countries, and Israel is also making links of Iran with terrorism. As there are nationalists in Iran, the situation also became critical as most of the world sees Iran as an extremist country. And according to Iran world never sees Zionism as a threat to this region. But after 1997/98, Iran started distancing itself from terrorism as the new appointment of Khatami. He was a reformist and wanted to show a positive image of Iran but sue national security policy was not in his hands, he found it very difficult.


Author concluded that Iran was isolated from the world because of the national politics and extremism after the revolution. But Khatami played a vital role to minimize the so-called threat from Iran like terrorism and war. The reformist policies of Khatami enabled Iran to tie its relations with other countries and trade with them. He also exposed the bad governance of Iran and the so-called narrative of nationalism by right-wing politicians. Khatami was considered a puppy of the west in Iran by right-wing politicians. The national security and defense policy are still confused because they were in Khamenei’s hands. And he is a right-wing politician who considered USA and EU as an existential threat to Iran. The internal politics of Iran played a vital role in the formation of foreign policy as well as defense policy


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